It has been noted that one of the most difficult challenges for a middle manager during organizational change occurs when middle managers are not involved in the entire change process and are simply expected to communicate to their staff what top management requires. In other words, being in a position where they are unable to question answers (as pointed out in class). Conversely, a fair and competent manager may be able to challenge bureaucracy by being transparent with change recipients and encouraging collaboration within the department. Certainly not an easy thing to do is top management is rigid and set in their ways. It is no wonder some organizations have taken a whole different approach to management by introducing self-managed teams, worker owned cooperatives which are a lot more democratic and often tend to operate in the best interests of the workers and the community at large. I will explore cooperatives in my next post.